OliNo

Renewable Energy

Line Lite International BV E14 Candle Lamp 4W WW

Posted by Marcel van der Steen in Led lights, Light measurements Add comments

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame presents a nice candle form lamp with an E14 fitting. This article shows the measurement results. Many parameters are also found in the Eulumdat file.

See this overview for a comparison with other light bulbs.

Summary measurement data

parameter meas. result remark
Color temperature 2800 K Warm white
Luminous intensity Iv 6.5 Cd
Beam angle 308 deg
Power P 4.0 W
Power Factor 0.60 For every 1 kWh net power consumed, there has been 1.3 kVAhr for reactive power.
Luminous flux 142 lm
Luminous efficacy 35 lm/W What actually is meant here is luminaire efficacy, this accounts for all driver, thermal and luminair optical losses.
CRI_Ra 74 Color Rendering Index.
Coordinates chromaticity diagram x=0.4510 and y=0.4068
Fitting E14
PAR-value 0.1 μMol/s/m2 The number of photons seen by an average plant when it is lit by the light of this light bulb. Value valid at 1 m distance from light bulb.
S/P ratio 1.1 This factor higher efficiency when used in very low light circumstances.
D  x H external dimensions 42 x 138 mm External dimensions of the light bulb. This includes the E14 fitting.
D x H luminous area 41 x 64 mm Dimensions of the luminous area (used in Eulumdat file). This is equal to the diameter and height of the glass.
General remarks The ambient temperature during the whole set of measurements was 29 deg C.

Warm up effect: during the warm up time the illuminance and consumed power decreased with 6 % and 2 % respectively.

Voltage dependency: the power consumption nor light output depend on the voltage applied.

Measurement report (PDF) olino-pdf
Eulumdat file olino_eulumdat Right click on icon and save the file.

Eulumdat light diagram

An interesting graph is the light diagram, indicating the intensity in the C0-C180 and the C90-C270 plane. This light diagram below comes from the program Qlumedit, that extracts these diagrams from an Eulumdat file.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_light_diagram

The light diagram giving the radiation pattern.

It indicates the luminous intensity around the light bulb. This light bulb has the same light diagram for the C0-C180 as for the C90-C270 plane since it has symmetry over 360 degrees. It produces a wide beam.

The unit is Cd/1000lm, meaning the intensity in Cd assuming there would be 1000 lumen in the measured light bulb. This enables comparing different types of light bulbs.

Illuminance Ev at 1 m distance, or luminous intensity Iv

Herewith the plot of the averaged luminous intensity Iv as a function of the inclination angle with the light bulb.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_pp_avg

The radiation pattern of the light bulb.

This radiation pattern is the average of the light output of the light diagram given earlier. Also, in this graph the luminous intensity is given in Cd.

These averaged values are used (later) to compute the lumen output.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_ev_dep_kantelhoek

Intensity data of every measured turn angle at each inclination angle.

This plot shows per inclination angle the intensity measurement results for each turn angle at that inclination angle. There normally are differences in illuminance values for different turn angles. However for further calculations the averaged values will be used.

When using the average values per inclination angle, the beam angle can be computed, being 308 degrees. This is the average value but as the light bulb has a symmetry over 360 degrees, this angle is valid for all turn-angles the light bulb is looked at.

Luminous flux

With the averaged illuminance data at 1 m distance, taken from the graph showing the averaged radiation pattern, it is possible to compute the luminous flux.

The result of this computation for this light spot is a luminous flux of 142 lm.

Luminous efficacy

The luminous flux being 142 lm, and the power of the light bulb being 4.0 W, yields a luminous efficacy of 35 lm/W.

A power factor of 0.60 means that for every 1 kWh net power consumed, a reactive component of 1.3 kVAr was needed.

Light bulb voltage 230 VAC
Light bulb current 29 mA
Power P 4.0 W
Apparent power S 6.8 VA
Power factor 0.60

Of this light bulb the voltage across ad the resulting current through it are measured and graphed.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_u_i_waveforms

Voltage across and current through the lightbulb

The current is not in phase with the voltage and has not a sinusiodal form. Hence the power factor is low.

Also the power spectrum of the current is determined.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_powerspectrumi_percent

Current power spectrum in % of the first harmonic (50 Hz).

Due to the peaks in current a lot of higher harmonics are in the current.

Color temperature and Spectral power distribution

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_powerspectrum_at_1m_distance

The spectral power distribution of this light bulb, energies on y-axis valid at 1 m distance.

The measured color temperature is about 2800 K which is warm white.

This color temperature is measured straight underneath the light bulb. Below a graph showing the color temperature for different inclination angles.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_cct_function_of_incl

Color temperature as a function of inclination angle.

The beam angle is 308 degrees, meaning at an inclination angle of 154 degrees there is 50 % left of the initial illuminance value at 0 degrees. Most of the light energy is within this area. There is measured up to 90 degrees inclination angle only. In this area the variation in light color is about 4 % of its value at 0 degrees inclination angle.

PAR value and PAR spectrum

To make a statement how well the light of this light bulb is for growing plants, the PAR-area needs to be determined. PAR stands for Photosynthetic Active Radiation which is that radiation that participates actively to photosynthesis and is expressed in μMol/s/m2.

Photosynthesis is the essence for growth and flowering of plants, where the blue part of the light spectrum is responsible for growth and the red part is responsible for flowering and budding (for gemmation). For photosynthesis it is more important to count the number of photons rather than the power in the light.

The power spectrum (power per wave length) of the light of the light bulb is converted into the number of photons (number of photons per wave length) and then these number of photons is weighted against the relative sensitivity of an average plant (which varies in value dependent on the wave length). The relative sensitivity curve in DIN-norm 5031-10:2000 is used for this. The next image shows the result.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_par_spectra_at_1m_distance

The photon spectrum, then the sensitivity curve and as result the final PAR spectrum of the light of this light bulb

The black curve gives the power spectrum of the light of this light bulb, in number of photons per wave length.

In red the relative sensitivity curve of an average plant (according to DIN norm 5031-10:2000).

Multiplying these two results in a curve showing the number of photos per wave length of the light of this light bulb, the PAR spectrum.

Summing all the photons, gives a PAR number that for this light results in 0.1 μMol/s/m2. This value is valid at 1 m distance from the light bulb.

Dividing the PAR number by the total number of photons of the light of this light bulb gives a sort of PAR efficiency, which is 64 % (valid for the PAR wave length range of 400 – 725 nm). So maximally 64 % of the total of photons in the light is effectively used by the average plant (since the plant might not take 100 % of the photons at the frequency where its relative sensitivity is 100 %).

Note: when mentioning this percentage of efficiency, it is important to verify if all wavelengths are present in a sufficient manner. Not that only blue light is available, when the plant is going to be used for flowering where specifically red light is needed.

S/P ratio

The human eye uses rods and cones. The rods work at scotopic light levels (twilight, night) and the rods at high(er) light levels (daytime, but also close to twilight). Each type of receptor has its own sensitivity for light. The rods are 2.7 times more sensitive than cones, and most for light at a blueish-greenish color whereas compared to the cones’ sensitivity for green light (555 nm).
The S/P ratio gives the maximum difference in sensitivity of the rods at their most sensitive wavelength compared to the cones at their’s. The more blueish (cold white) the light, the more the S/P ratio can be.

The light of this light bulb has a certain spectrum leading to an S/P ratio of 1.1. The light of this lightbulb at scotopic light levels is perceived this factor higher than it would be a photopic light levels.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_s_and_p_spectra_at_1m_distance
The power spectrum, sensitivity curves and resulting scotopic and photopic spectra (spectra energy content defined at 1 m distance).

Since there is a lot of red and yellow in the spectrum and not too much blue, the S/P ratio is not big.

More info will come in a separate article.

Chromaticity diagram

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_chromaticity

The chromaticity space and the position of the lamp’s color coordinates in it.

The light coming from this lamp op top of the Planckian Locus (the black path in the graph).

Its coordinates are x=0.4510 and y=0.4068.

Color Rendering Index (CRI) or also Ra

Herewith the image showing the CRI as well as how well different colors are represented (rendered). The higher the number, the better the resemblance with the color when a black body radiator would have been used (the sun, or an incandescent lamp).

Each color has an index Rx, and the first 8 indexes (R1 .. R8) are averaged to compute the Ra which is equivalent to the CRI.

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_cri

CRI of the light of this lightbulb.

The value of 74 is lower than 80 which is considered a minimum value for indoor usage.

Note: the chromaticity difference is 0.0007 indicates the distance to the Planckian Locus. Its value is lower than 0.0054, which means that the calculated CRI result is meaningful.

Voltage dependency

The dependency of a number of lamp parameters on the lamp voltage is determined. For this, the lamp voltage has been varied and its effect on the following light bulb parameters measured: illuminance E_v [lx], the lamppower P [W], the (Correlated) Color Temperature [K] and the luminous efficacy [lm/W].

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_voltagedependency

Lamp voltage dependencies of certain light bulb parameters, where the value at 230 V is taken as 100 %.

The consumed power varies less than 1.5 % and the illuminane doesn’t vary when the voltage varies between 200-250 V. This variation is insignificant.

When the voltage at 250 V varies with + and – 5 V, then the illuminance varies within 0.1 %, so when abrupt voltage changes occur this effect is not visible in the illuminance output.

Warm up effects

After switch on of a cold lamp, the effect of heating up of the lamp is measured on illuminance E_v [lx], color temperature CT or correlated color temperature CCT [K], the lamppower P [W] and the luminous efficacy [lm/W].

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_startupeffect

lli_bv_e14_4w_ww_flame_startupeffect_end

Effect of warming up on different light bulb parameters. At top the 100 % level is put at begin, and at bottom at the end.

The warm-up time is about 30 minutes, during which the illuminance and consumed power decrease with 6 % and 2 % respectively.

One Response to “Line Lite International BV E14 Candle Lamp 4W WW”

  1. harry Says:

    Awesome information about your product. Anyone can easily understand your product by this posting. Thanks for posting.

Leave a Reply

 

WP Theme & Icons by N.Design Studio
Privacy Policy Entries RSS Comments RSS Log in